The purpose of the accrual method of accounting is to match income and expenses in the same year. Under this method of accounting, income is generally reported in the year it is earned and expenses are deducted or capitalized in the year they are incurred. Generally, your client includes an amount in their gross income for the tax year in which all events that fix their right to receive the income has occurred and they can determine the amount with reasonable accuracy.
Advance payments for services to be performed in a later tax year, as income must be reported in the year your client receives the payments. If the payment is for a service that your client has agreed to perform by the end of the next tax year, they can choose to pay it in the year the payment was received or in the next year, when the service will be performed. Your client cannot however postpone including the payment beyond that tax year.
Advance payments for sales have special rules that apply. If the advance payments are made for a contract that entails both sales and services of goods, the two may have to be treated as two separate agreements. Generally speaking, advance payments of incomes must be report in the tax year in which your client receives them.
Business expenses can generally be deducted or capitalized when it meets the following conditions:
·All events have occurred that fix the fact of liability
·The liability can be determined with reasonable accuracy
·Economic performance has occurred
Economic performance occurs as the property or services are provided.
Inventories are necessary to clearly show income when the production or sale of merchandise is an income-producing factor in your client's business. The accrual method of accounting is necessary when your client must account for inventory in their business.